Knowledge! Okay so what is knowledge?
A matter which is believed to be, is evident and bears upon it its proof—
What is this called? Knowledge.
Okay, so what if it is believed to be, and is evident, but I cannot prove it, because I am young—
The boy who’s father taught him “Allah is Greater”, “He begets not, nor is begotten”—
And the one who’s teacher taught him?—
We say he is a copier (investor in authority, as an term of jurisprudence), he copies the one he trusts: he can’t give proof, yet what does he do? (Audience: he copies)
So the next stage, after knowledge is what? Copying.
Ok what if you believe it to be, but reality is not so? There, that is ignorance. This is what? (Audience: ignorance).
So ignorance is not that you do not know—this would be too easy.
Rather, ignorance is that you understand something which is contradictory to reality.
The illiterate person, he has no understandings, but the ignorant person, he understands something in disagreement with reality, yet he’s engrained it in his head. This is ignorance.
“Is it so, the reign of Jahillyya (Age of Ignorance) they want?” (5:50)
The things that they believe to be right when it is wrong. If they didn’t believe in anything, it would be easier, we could teach them the thing. And in that regard, the illiterate person he is sufficed with your telling him the matter at hand, but as for the ignorant person, what do you do?
With him, you have two issues: that you remove from him that matter which is untrue and put what? (Audience: truth) The one who slows and tires the world is who, the illiterate or the ignorant? The ignorant. Those who believe a matter is what? (Audience: true) When it is actually? (Audience: untrue) It is not true, rather it is false.
Okay, if the matter is not believed in, nor is it evident? So, then what, are you in doubt? If the two are the same, the negation against the support, this is called doubt. Okay, what if one is more likely? This is assumption. And if one is made to be more likely, this is illusion.
Okay so when you put all the matters together what do you have?
Knowledge: a matter, believed in, evident and bears upon it its proof. Okay? Good.
And, if you are not able to bring proof, a matter, evident and believed in? That would be copying.
Okay, a matter you believe in, that isn’t evident? That would be ignorance.
And, a matter you don’t know that it is evident or not? (Audience: doubt)
And, if one is more likely? This would be assumption.
And, the one made more likely? This would be illusion.
So, the most difficult issue we have is what? The issue of ignorance. The one who tires and slows the whole world is who? The ignorant. The ignorant because they have things they believe to be right, when it is wrong.